Какво се случи

Благодаря на всички за чудесните дни заедно. Ето и информация относно принципите за улавяне на водата, изграждане и поддръжка на изкуствено езеро, както и избор на растения за вашето пермакултурно езеро. Тук ще добавяме още информация с развитието на езерото. 

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Ден Първи 

Принципи на улавяне на водата


1. Започнете с дълго и обмислено наблюдение.

Използвайте всичките си сетива за да видите къде тече водата и как. Какво сработва и какво не. Използвайте нещата, които работят като основа за надграждане.

2. Започнете в най-високата точка на вашия водосбор и се движете надолу. 
Водата се движи надолу по склона, за това събирайте водата във високите коти за по лесна филтрация и разпространение. Започнете в най-високата точка където обемът и скоростта на водата са по-ниски. 

3. Започнете с нещо просто и малко.  

Работете в човешки мащаб, така че да може да изграждате и поправяте сами всичко. Много малки стратегии са много по-ефективни от една голяма когато целите да уловите водата в почвата. 

4. Забавете, разпространете и инфилтрирайте водата в почвата. 

Вместо да се стича по-повърхността и да води до ерозия, насърчете водата да се задържи при вас, да се разходи и инфилрира в почвата.  Slow it, spread it, sink it.

5. Винаги планирайте преливник и управлявайте и използвайте оттока като допълнителен ресурс. 

6. Увеличете живото и органичното покритие. 

Create a living sponge so the harvested water is used to create more resources, while the soil’s ability to infiltrate and hold water steadily improves.


7. Увеличете полезните взаимоотношения и ефективност. Maximize beneficial relationships and efficiency by “stacking functions.”


Get your water harvesting strategies to do more than hold water. Berms can double as high-and-dry raised paths. Plantings can be placed to cool buildings in summer. Vegetation can be selected to provide food.

8. Непрекъснато наблюдавайте и правете преоценка на системата. 

Observe how your work affects the site, beginning again with the first principle. Make any needed changes, using the principles to guide you.

Тези принципи са в основата на успешното улавяне на водата. Те важат еднакво силно при идейната фаза, проектирането и създаването на всякакви ландшафти за съхранение на вода. Трябва да приложите всички принципи, а не само тези които са ви любими, за да постигнете пълния потенциал на мястото. Използвани заедно тези принципи значително увеличават успеха, намаляват грешките и ви дават възможности да интегрирате няколко стратегии, за да удовлетворите нуждите на мястото. Докато принципите остават константа, стратегиите, които можете да използвате се различават на всяко уникално място.  


Оригинален източник Brad Lancaster  Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands and Beyond 


За още информация относно Водата, натиснете тук  CLICK HERE

April 2011 Permablitz II

Ден Втори

Изграждане на езерото


Why build a pond ?
A pond can serve multi functions. for example  a water reservoir, swimming pool, aquaculture site , fish production, provider of beauty and calm, duck rearing . wildlife attraction, biodiversity enhancer , home for  beneficial animals such as amphibians and a great provider of biomass for mulch ,chicken fodder and even fuel production.Its certainly good to have a clear idea why you personally want to build a pond as this will be crucial for  the successful design of your pond if you so choose to build one. 

Aquaculture 
The ability to grow in the medium of water is far more efficient and productive than land based efforts. This is primarily because the essential component to growth water is always present , secondly because without gravity exerting its potent power  water based life has more energy to expend in growth as opposed to structural  support. We want to utilise this potential in our pond for both our cosumption and that of the animals in the form of vegetation and fish but more on that later.       

Biodiversity
A pond designed well can support many varieties of plants and aquatic animals and by providing  valuable water also supports land based mammals ,birds  and insects  as they frequent the pond for a drink. By supporting a variety of species the ecosystem overall becomes more resilient and less prone to problems . Hence garden with high biodiversity  needs no chemical sprays or fertlization and performs better than gardens that are reliant upon this . This is something which becomes clearer every year we spend in the garden  so more biodiversity is always welcome 

Beauty ,Education and Recreation
We love water  and so do the kids  who love to spend hours watching intently and occasionally plunging hands in the water. The pond can be a place to hang out and chill out and perhaps to dip into in the hot summer months. 


How to build a pond ? 


There are 3 main things to consider when choosing a site for a pond 

  • Topography
    Its better  to construct ponds in waterlogged areas. This limited depth of digging reduces the construction cost and efforts considerably. However, full consideration should also be given to the possible effects of flood.The low lands are also desirable as this is where a pond would naturally occur, and will collect water passively it will also look better here as it will seem more natural. The surrounding vegetation is also something to bear in mind.a  nearby fast growing tree like the willow can puncture clay and concrete membranes furthermore the annual  leaf and fruit  drop from a tree can cause a loss of oxygen as the aerobic bacteria go to work on them in the water. This process is called eutrophication and can lead to very little diversity in the  pond  as most other lifeforms are starved  from lack of a oxygen  consumed by the bacteria. You may recognise this condition by the green blanket weed you see covering some ponds.
If you want to build a pond on a slope than you will need a wall on the lower side ,this kind of pond building especially if it is a larger pond requires some expertise .

  • Source of water and its quality
A dependable source of water supply must be available within or near the site. This is to compensate the water loss through seepage and surface evaporation thereafter. Equally important is the need for avoiding excess water and hence there must be arrangement for the excess water to escape through a bypass channel or a spillway. The water supply to the pond should as far as possible be natural, preferably rain water. However, alternative arrangements of water supply should be made for dry season either from a deep tube well or irrigation canal or from perennial sources like spring, stream, river, etc. It helps if the pond is on the lower lands to allow accumulation of surface runoff from a larger catchment area, again care should  be taken to avoid flooding.  

  • Soil Type 
Pond soil must retain water. Soils with a low infiltration rate are most suitable for fish pond.. The best soils are impermeable clay which can be easily compacted and made leak proof. Clay aside loamy soils can also be used, but they need well compacting, and may leak slightly in the early stages, although they tend to seal themselves with time. Sandy and gravelly soils should be avoided, but if they are the only ones available they must be made impermeable with a thick coating of clay or with polythene sheeting. Soil impermeability can also be achieved by soil compaction at the pond bottom and dyke with either a mixture of soil + 1–5% cement or soil + 10–20% cowdung. Treated areas should be kept moist for 2–3 days by gently sprinkling water to avoid cracking and finally the pond is filled with water.
Peat soils have special problems, since they are usually very acidic in nature and need sufficient liming, while the organic matter decomposition may lead to dissolved oxygen deficiency. Soils rich in limestone also create special problems, since the excessive lime content tends to precipitate phosphate and iron. Such ponds would then have little plankton population and macrophytes and would be relatively sterile. This can be overcome by adding sufficient organic matter such as cowdung, poultry manure, etc.
A general and convenient field test for the soil quality is to take a handful of moist soil from the test holes made at the proposed site and to compress it into a firm ball. If the ball does not crumble after a little handling, it indicates that it contains sufficient clay for the purpose of pond construction. Accurate determination of the composition of the soil and its water-holding character is possible by hydrometer method. Several test holes may be made across the site and soil samples may be collected vertically from every 0.5 m of depth reaching up to a level of 1 m in a test hole.



Designing the pond 




It is very worthwhile to design in as much edge and as much variation in depth as possible so as to get maximum diversity of habitat. Edge is an ecological phenomena that observes the fact that the edge of one habitat with another say pond shore to pond surface or forest edge to meadow support many more lifeforms than either habitat alone.  At the very least you should account for the 4 different types of plants( see below for diagram) which  can cohabit a water body, provide a gentle slope for amphibian and insects to enter and exit and provide hiding places for fish and other pond life in the form of tree stumps or hollow rocks.
Further variation will only increase diversity and these can come in the form of a beach area , an island, marshy area, peninsula forms or chimanapas. 



Laying out
A useful aid when laying out your pond is a piece of rope which can be used to mark the shoreline and easily moved around. 

Gradients

Its best to site your pond on level ground but if you do not have this privilege than use the earth from excavation to mound up the lower side to prevent any over spill. When doing this you need to compact the soil very well layer by layer and sow a cover crop in soon as possible to prevent erosion.

Lining 
if you are fortunate enough to have a clay soil than you will still need to puddle the substrate to avoid seepage. This is easy ,get it wet and stamp up and down in it preferably with a lots of help. Its very important with clay  to not let the material dry out as it will crack so keep the water level high at all times 
You can also use manure and soil but this method has little recommendation  and should only be used in a place were any seepage would be of no detriment to anyone i.e away from any neighbors or properties.Other wise you are looking at synthetic lining 


to line the pond you need to

  • dig down a further 15cm than your required depth
  • remove any stones or sharp objects from the soil which could puncture the lining
  • place a layer of old carpet , cardboard, sand , or sieved soil under the liner for protection
  • put in place the liner
  • add 6cm layer of sand  to cover liner
  • add stone free soil to support plants
  • fill the pond ,with at least some water from nearby pond to bring in microscopic life forms and eggs 
When digging the pond you can use the top soil for other areas in garden or store for later use ,it is very valuable , the sub soil can also be used in the garden , to create relief or perhaps mixed with compost a mound for a future herb spiral or some other landscaping. Have a plan for this before you start digging.

Ден трети

Екосистемата в изкуственото езеро


Когато създавате водната градина, трябва да имате в предвид 3 неща: избор на подходящи растения и техните нужди, химията на водата и другите жива същества в езерото.  

Растения

Обособени са  4 групи водни растения, разделени по местообитание/хабитат.




Свободно плаващи растения/или частично потопени 
напр. папур (Typha), юнкус, острица (cyperaceae) 


Напълно потопени във водата/ Кислород произвеждащи 
напр. мирофилум  (Myriophyllum sp.), роголист, морска трева 

Плаващи дълбоки растения 
листата са на повърхността, но корените са закотвени в почвата под вода, растения като водната лилия (Nymphaea)  

Свободно плаващи растения
растенията плават на повърхността и корените свободно плават във водата, 
Водна леща Lemna minor

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Водорасли (Algae) 
Водораслите виреят  в топли, слънчеви хабитати и са много бързи консуматори на хранителните вещества. Ако имате високо ниво на органични вещества (опадала шума, изпражнения), водораслите ще ги консумират с невероятна скорост. 

Те могат да причинят значими вреди на вашата екосистема:   

  • Намаляват проникването на светлина
  • Консумират наличния кислород 
  • Намаляват повърхностния вход на кислород. 
Решението е проблема
Водораслите (алгаето) са много богати на хранителни вещества и могат да се използват за производство на течности за захранване на растенията, компост и стават за храна на животните,  вкл. човека. Ако видите увеличения в нивата им, извадете ги и ги използвайте. 
Заслужава си да се спомене, че водораслите имат лоша слава, заради вредите, които нанасят в естествените водоеми и езера. Tе процъфтяват хранейки се с течните торове, изтекли във водния басейн от конвенционалното селско стопанство. Ненужни торове, които представляват значително голям разход и създават още по-големи разходи от езерата, които трябва да бъдат почистени и засадени и зарибени само за да се случи същото нещо отново.   

Когато избирате растения най-добре да се основете на местни растения, пазете се и внимавайте когато въвеждате чужди водни растения, плевел е растение, което расте там където не го искате, направете добро проучване 

Взаимодействие на растенията с водата.

Фотосинтеза: В слънчевите дни растенията приемат въглероден двуокис и създават кислород. Когато отсъства слънчева светлина този процес се обръща в респирация и растенията поемат кислород и издишат кислороден двуокис. Водните растения действат  по същия начин, но обмяната кислород/въглероден двуокис се случва във водата. Важно е съотношението кислород/въглероден двуокис и да разберете тяхното въздействие върху създаването на здрава и стабилна система. 

В периоди на облачно време не могат да фотосинтезират и баланса кислород, въглерод се променя. 

Когато водната повърхност е покрита с твърде много растения, това също намаля способността на по-ниските растения да фотосинтезират и освен това намалява повърхностната зона, от която водата да добива кислород от въздуха. 

Падналата шума и други дебри (органична материя и екстременти от населяващите живи същества езерото, също се отразяват върху съотношението кислород/въглерод, тъй като бактериите, които ги разграждат също консумират кислород. 


   

В здравата естествена езерна екосистема са налични основни хранителни вещества (carbon,hydrogen, nitrogen,phosporus,sulfur,potassium. calcium and magnesium), микроелементи (iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum and chlorine). 



да постигнем равновесие 

Равновесие се постига като уподобим естествена система.Като създаваме подходящо местообитание за разнообразни растения и животи и избираме местни растения, които са вече приспособени към местните условия, в подходящо съотношение, постигаме стабилна химия във водата.   
The plants that can cover the water surface inhibit excess light feeding the algae ,we want these to cover 60% of the surface .this will allow sufficient light through to lower levels plants.
Submerged plants should be distributed 1 bunch per  1/5th of a square meter. These plants are oxygenators and will keep nutrient levels suitable.
 We need to monitor levels of fish and amphibians as natural predators are fewer in a garden environment  unless of course you are the predator as will be the case in our ecosystem. to many fish will disrupt the balance. 

Bear in mind that a stable system is the result of natural succession and a natural healthy system needs to evolve. We can try to get it their as fast as possible with good design and we can integrate the pond management into our system .i.e fish control for food, organic removal for mulch , algae control for chook food.



Growing and Propagating 


Growing

In a marshy area you can place the emergent  plants directly in the soil but be aware of the invasive nature  of these plants you will need room for them to spread. They make great mulch material.
If you are stocking your pond from local waters than once you have dug them out place them in plastic pots ready for placing in the pond. You can use standard plant pots but plug the holes so that the nutrients cannot escape from the pot nand you do not exess residue on the pond floor, otherwise any plastic tub will do like a ice cream tub. The best pots are wider than they are deeper as most aquatic plants are shallow rooted.

Use top soil  from garden with some clay content ,this will ensure weight  of the pot and will hold  nutrients , do not use sub soil from the pond digging even though you are going to have tons of it. For really healthy plants you can change the soil every few years or add compost to the pots yearly.

Propogating

The principal ways of propagating aquatic plants is by division and separation

  • Division : in its most basic form involves sectioning the plant into rooted pieces and repotting. The plant roots should be  cleaned with water to determine points of division that include growing points or growing eyes along with supportive root.

 

  • Separation : This involves the separation of bulbs or corms from the mother plant



Fish Rearing  

For the body of water we will end up with the best fish you can consider keeping for food is carp.
Its important that the depth is at least 1m so that they can survive in the winter months. The width and length can be as little as 3x3m  and that you do not let populations grow to high as the pond ecosystem will suffer from oxygen depletion. The fish will find the majority of their food within the pond  but as the ecosystem establishes itself you can feed them manure and grain.

You stock your pond in the spring with baby carp. In around three years you will have plate-size fish which make a very presentable family supper. The best months to harvest them are November to February."

For successful breeding the spawn needs to separated until they are big enough to not be eaten by the other fish.


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